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Timor Leste
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Review: Justice, victimhood and remembering the violence in East Timor

Review: Justice, victimhood and remembering the violence in East Timor

Lia Kent’s study of East Timor’s attempts at transitional justice is an important contribution  

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Review: Suharto’s guardians and reluctant reformers

Review:  Suharto’s guardians and reluctant reformers

A new publication tells the story of the first graduates of the joint Indonesian Armed Forces Military Academy

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Review: At the scene of the crime

Review: At the scene of the crime

Essays, reflections and poetry on East Timor, 1999-2010

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East Timor ten years after the referendum

East Timor ten years after the referendum

A decade on, East Timor is still linked to Indonesia

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The politics of remembering and forgetting

The politics of remembering and forgetting

The people of East Timor are negotiating different conceptions of reconciliation in their daily lives

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Children of the enemy

Children of the enemy

A child abducted during the Indonesian occupation returns to her former home

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Trapped in the legacy of the past

Trapped in the legacy of the past

Conflict between Timorese youth gangs and martial arts groups hark back to the Indonesian occupation

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A problematic division

A problematic division

Managing the border between West and East Timor has been an ongoing challenge

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Graphic resistance

Graphic resistance

Photo-essay: Dissent and struggle are persistent themes of images adorning walls across East Timor

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Letting go of Indonesian

Letting go of Indonesian

The choice of Tetum and Portuguese as national languages presents challenges to the new nation

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Getting an education

Getting an education

Links to Indonesian schools and universities remain strong in East Timor

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A hybrid popular culture

A hybrid popular culture

Indonesian pop music and television still have a significant influence in East Timor

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Eight years after 1999

Eight years after 1999

Displaced East Timorese children go hungry in Indonesian West Timor

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Regions of Indonesia and East Timor

 

Aceh Aceh will not lie down/ Lesley McCulloch 66:Apr 01. Women and the war in Aceh - Women want to silence all the guns/ Suraiya Kamaruzzaman 64:Oct 00. A different freedom - Islamic rebellion in Aceh is not so irrational/ Jacqueline Aquino Siapno 64:Oct 00. From heroes to rebels - Aceh: Jakarta's other colony?/ Sylvia Tiwon 62:Apr 00. Whither Aceh? Updating events in the troubled province/ Ed Aspinall 62:Apr 00. A widow's notes - Yet another violent death in a small Acehnese village/ Syarifah Mariati 62:Apr 00. Aceh's causes - Conversation with an activist/ Maree Keating 61:Jan 00. Aceh's failed election/ Vanessa Johanson 60:Oct 99. 'The sultan will be Dr Hasan Tiro' - Interview with Free Aceh fighter/ Vanessa Johanson 60:Oct 99. Indonesia on the net/ Ed Aspinall and Iain Wilson 60:Oct 99. Aceh exposed (Marwan Yatim)/ IRIP News Service 57:Jan 99. The forgotten cost of counter-insurgency in Aceh/ Kerry Brogan 49:Jan 97. Aceh's year of living dangerously/ Leon Jones 49:Jan 97. Schooling in Aceh/ Barbara Leigh 49:Jan 97. Zainul Abidin's story - an Acehnese boy's tale of abuse and loss/ 43:Jun 95. Tim Kell, The roots of Acehnese rebellion/ Ron Witton 43:Jun 95. Growing money on trees - New forestry scheme in Aceh/ 31:Jun 92. The troubles in Aceh/ Asia Watch 27:Jun 91. A magic stone? No kidding - Tourist experience from Aceh/ 23:Jun 90.

Bali Whose tourism? - Balinese oppose local developmet/ Carol Warren 54:Apr 98. Michel Picard, Bali - Cultural tourism and touristic culture/ Ron Witton 52:Oct 97. Sleaze with Balinese kids - Foreigners accused of sexual exploitation/ Putu Wirata 50:Apr 97. Geoffrey Robinson, The dark side of Paradise - political violence in Bali/ Ron Witton 50:Apr 97. Vern Cook (ed), Bali behind the seen - Recent fiction from Bali/ Ron Witton 50:Apr 97. Punks, rastas and headbangers - Bali's Generation X/ Emma Baulch 48:Oct 96. Waiting for Ngaben - Kuta Beach needs more than a cleanup/ Rob Goodfellow 46:Mar 96. What are Baliologists up to? - Third International Workshop on Bali/ Emma Baulch 44:Sep 95. Letters from a sacred site - the Tanah Lot controversy in Bali/ 43:Jun 95. The McDonaldisation of Bali - Interview with Bangkal Kusuma on Tanah Lot/ Emma Baulch 41:Dec 94. Rabaul's warning to Indonesia - A volcanic eruption in Bali would be disastrous/ Graeme Wheller 41:Dec 94. Rude awakenings - A tourist in culture shock/ Japady Wolf 40:Sep 94. Bali - alternative handicrafts - Yayasan Mitra Bali/ Rob Goodfellow 40:Sep 94. Exchanging gifts - Melbourne and Bali schools exchange art/ Margot Anwar 40:Sep 94. Modernisation and maternity in Bali - Bottle feeding on the rise/ Robin Lim and Melody Kemp 39:Jun 94. Balinese and blind - Australian Rotary brings sight to the blind/ Geoffrey Cohen 39:Jun 94. Balinese healers - The role of the supernatural/ Anna Nettheim 39:Jun 94. Golkar's election victory - Golkar tactics in a Balinese village/ Gayle Wenban 37:Dec 93. Bali's 80 billion rupiah monstrosity - Controversy on plans to build a huge statue/ 37:Dec 93. The world of the Kuta cowboy - Guides subculture in Bali and Lombok/ Yapady Wolf 35:Jun 93. Falling in love in Bali - Traps for young lovers/ Rebekah Ozanne 31:Jun 92. Gerard Lee, Troppo man/ Anna Clancy 28:Oct 91. Another kind of development - Community development in Sanur, Bali/ Carol Warren 25:Dec 90. Silvio Santoso, Bali pathfinder/ Kirsty Sword 19:Jul 89. I've been to Bali too (again) - Impressions of Bali after 20 years/ Robin Osborne 17:Dec 88. Bali for the Balinese/ Silvio Santosa 3:Oct 84. Unhealthy Bali - A hell of a report/ Robin Osborne 2:May 84. Another side of Bali - The poems of Putu Oka Sukanta/ Keith Foulcher 1:Nov 83.

East Timor Scenes from an occupation (East Timor)/ Carmela Baranowska 63:Jul 00. The new Timor Gap - What will Australia do now?/ Geoff McKee 62:Apr 00. Out of the tiger's teeth - The inside story of East Timor's ballot/ Helene van Klinken 1:Jan 00. Humanity, not fascism! - An Indonesian eyewitness to East Timor's destruction/ Yeni Rosa Damayanti /61:Jan 00. Arnold S Kohen, From the place of the dead - The epic struggles of Bishop Belo of East Timor/ Robin Osborne 60:Oct 99. Lost and found - How the world rediscovered the Timor cause/ Geoffrey Gunn 60:Oct 99. Indonesians for East Timor/ James Goodman 59:Jul 99. Hiking Timor's tops - mountain climbing in East Timor/ Mike Davis 59:Jul 99. Horta bears the torch/ James Goodman 59:Jul 99. Tomorrow, in Timor Lorosae - Suddenly, freedom in East Timor is no longer a distant dream/ Richard Tanter 58:Apr 99. Tough, poor, unbeaten - On Atauro, drought is the real crisis/ Gabrielle Samson 57:Jan 99. Heike Krieger, East Timor and the international community- basic documents/ Richard Tanter 53:Jan 98. Geoffrey Gunn, East Timor and the United Nations - the case for intervention/ Richard Tanter 53:Jan 98. Murder in the cathedral - assassination attempt on Bishop Belo/ 51:Jul 97. Timor misadventure - A retired Indonesian officer condemns Indonesian invasion/ Radio Netherlands 50:Apr 97. James Dunn, East Timor - A people betrayed/ James Rose 50:Apr 97. Rivals congratulate Nobel winner - UDT defends Jose Ramos Horta/ Joao Carrascalao & Domingos de Oliveira 49:Jan 97. To struggle for freedom - Indonesia yesterday, East Timor today/ Peter Carey 49:Jan 97. Change in Indonesia, chance for East Timor/ Coki Naipospos 48:Oct 96. Antithesis of justice - New security treaty offers East Timor nothing/ Arthur King 46:Mar 96. Seno Gumira Ajidarma, Eyewitness - Protest stories from Indonesia/ Ron Witton 46:Mar 96. Peacemaking on East Timor - ANU Conference/ Gerry van Klinken 44:Sep 95. The story behind the Dili massacre - Survivor tells of origin of youth movement/ Nunu Santos 44:Sep 95. Ears - A grim short story about East Timor/ Seno Gumira Ajidarma (transl. Jan Lingard) 43:Jun 95. Playing with fire - East Timorese riot in Baucau/ Terry Russell 42:Mar 95. Chomsky hits Australia over East Timor - Chomsky visits Australia/ Peter Cronau 42:Mar 95. Timor - no longer a sideshow - East Timorese grab the APEC spotlight/ 41:Dec 94. A productive visit to East Timor - Community aid to orphans and the needy/ Judy O'Halloran 41:Dec 94. Motifs in East Timorese art - Images in tattoos and weaving/ Alison Murray and Veronica Pereira Maia 41:Dec 94. Return to East Timor - Back after 19 years, an Australian calls for peace talks/ David Scott 40:Sep 94. (Colonial) Aceh and (today's) East Timor - The two wars have remarkable parallels/ Albert Heijn 37:Dec 93. Alatas should face the facts on Timor - Misrepresentation is impeding negotiations/ James Dunn 36:Sep 93. Viva Timor Leste! - Xanana Gusmao's defence plea/ Xanana Gusmao 35:Jun 93. New East Timorese leader fights on - Profile of Ma'huno, successor to Xanana/ Peter Cronau 34:Mar 93. If only I were a free person - East Timorese appeal to Indonesians/ 33:Dec 92. We want to be free - Interview with Bishop Belo of East Timor/ Matra 32:Sep 92. Getting away with murder - The Dili massacre courts martial/ 31:Jun 92. Punishing the victims - Heavy sentences for East Timorese protesters/ 31:Jun 92. New moves for peace in East Timor - Jose Ramos Horta's proposals/ Herb Feith 31:Jun 92. Jakarta after the Santa Cruz massacre/ Gerry van Klinken 30:Mar 92. The Santa Cruz massacre - Eyewitness accounts/ 29:Dec 91. How Jakarta saw the massacre/ David Hill and Krishna Sen 29:Dec 91. An uneven chorus of condemnation - International reactions/ 29:Dec 91. From Santa Cruz to Jakarta - Timorese protest in Jalan Thamrin/ 29:Dec 91. Timor - Not ideology but nationalism/ John MacDougall (Interview) 29:Dec 91. The Jaelani official inquiry/ 29:Dec 91. Portugal's inadequacy - Post massacre letters from Xanana Gusmao/ Xanana Gusmao 29:Dec 91. John Taylor, East Timor 1974-89 - A chronology/ John Waddingham 26:Mar 91. Winner takes all - Indonesianising East Timor's land-title system/ 26:Mar 91. Xanana face to face - Interview with East Timorese guerrilla leader/ Robert Domm 25:Dec 90. Murdani's Dili speech - Don't dream, or else.../ 23:Jun 90. The Timor Gap Treaty/ Andrew Mills 22:Mar 90. Gil Scrine, Buried alive - The story of East Timor/ Robin Osborne 20:Oct 89. Travelling in East Timor with eyes and ears open/ 20:Oct 89. Reporting East Timor/ Keith Lovard 18:Apr 89. Oil in troubled waters - The implications of the Timor Gap Agreement/ Keith Suter 17:Dec 88. The secret war in East Timor - Recent pictures/ 14:Apr 88. East Timor - The inside story/ Gordon McIntosh 10:Apr 87. Is a political settlement possible?/ Jose Ramos Horta (Interview) 10:Apr 87. Ten years after integration/ Benedict Anderson 9:Dec 86. ALP Conference - Requiem for Timor?/ Pat Walsh 3:Oct 84.

Irian Jaya [see West Papua]

Jakarta Day of no laws - An Australian amid the Jakarta riots/ Vanessa Johanson 56:Oct 98. Big projects, little people - Demolishing kampungs to make way for condominiums/ Lea Jellinek 50:Apr 97. Riot chronology/ Ed Aspinall 48:Oct 96. What happened before the riots?/ Ed Aspinall 48:Oct 96. The Casa Pub - A home away from home in mid-Jakarta/ Andrew Vogt 35:Jun 93. Lea Jellinek, The wheel of fortune - The history of a poor community in Jakarta/ Kathy Robinson 33:Dec 92. Susan Abeyasekere, Jakarta - A history/ Michael Pinches 14:Apr 88. Jakarta - A History (Summary)/ Susan Abeyasekere 14:Apr 88.

Kalimantan

Pak Rabun and the wilderness - Kalimantan by boat and on foot/ Ciaran Harman 65:Jan 01. Magic on fire - Protecting Kutai Park in East Kalimantan/ Alex Ryan 55:Jul 98. The horror in Kalimantan - account of ugly communal violence/ Human Rights Watch Asia 51:Jul 97. West Kalimantan at a glance/ Human Rights Watch Asia 51:Jul 97. Dayak anger ignored - inequities in state development in Kalimantan/ Michael Dove 51:Jul 97. Ecotourism - can it save the orangutans?/ Rachel Drewry 51:Jul 97. Politics and peat - The one million hectare sawah project/ 48:Oct 96. Development is an extension of colonialism/ Stephanus Djuweng (interview) 47:Jul 96. PLASMA - Environmental NGO in Kalimantan/ 45:Dec 95. Forest fires in Kalimantan/ 41:Dec 94. Chopping up Kalimantan - A traveller is appalled at the rate of logging/ Mark James 34:Mar 93. Resource boom in Borneo - Mining and logging in East Kalimantan/ Peter Durkin 27:Jun 91. Displaced by development - Dirty tricks by business in West Kalimantan/ 26:Mar 91. Eric Jansen, On foot across Borneo/ Robin Osborne 19:Jul 89. Forest destruction in South Kalimantan/ Lesley Potter 16:Oct 88.

 

Maluku

The forgotten war in North Maluku/ Smith Alhadar 63:Jul 00. What caused the Ambon violence?/ Gerry van Klinken 60:Oct 99. Banda burns/ Phillip Winn 60:Oct 99. Forgotten refugees of Buton - Muslim refugees from Ambon/ Elizabeth Fuller Collins 59:Jul 99. Richard Chauvel, Nationalists, soldiers and separatists (Ambon)/ Ron Witton 46:Mar 96.

Nusa Tenggara

Tragedy in Sumba/ David Mitchell 58:Apr 99. Travels in West Timor/ Simon Andrewartha 55:Jul 98. Permeable border - A Mabo-style claim for Indonesian fishermen / Campbell Watson 54:Apr 98. Beaches and broken bones - Tourism in Lombok/ 47:Jul 96. Religious riots rock Flores/ 45:Dec 95. West Timor police get jail - Jail for Jeri Manafe's killers/ Raimandus Tiwa 45:Dec 95. Who killed Ben Maresh?/ Denise Maresh 43:Jun 95. Health services in Lombok/ Cynthia Hunter 39:Jun 94. The battle for Gili Trawangan - Locals are evicted to make way for a golf course/ 34:Mar 93. The not very festive children's festival - Lombok/ S. Catur Kukuh. 29:Dec 91. Going against the tide - `Development' in West Timor/ 28:Oct 91.

Sulawesi

Letter from Makassar - Artists rebuild community identity/ Halim HD 64:Oct 00. Back to the future - Democracy in old South Sulawesi manuscripts/ Elizabeth Morrell 61:Jan 00. Dirty landlord - Local views on Sulawesi's Inco mine/ Roger Moody 60:Oct 99. Revisiting Inco - Reformasi hits Sulawesi's 'Freeport'/ Kathryn Robinson 60:Oct 99. Climb a mountain - Eco-tourism in Sulawesi/ Allyson Lankester 58:Apr 99. Villagers keep the seas alive/ Ian Dutton & Brian Crawford 55:Jul 98. Jakarta money stirs Ujungpandang riot/ Vedi Hadiz 53:Jan 98. Sulawesi on two wheels - a bike ride through Toraja/ Mick Coopes 53:Jan 98. Togians: ecotourism is not the answer/ Kate Napthali 51:Jul 97. The Togian Islands/ Kate Napthali 51:Jul 97. Sulawesi for the serious tourist/ David Henley 36:Sep 93. Nigel Barley, Not a hazardous sport/ Alan Samagalski 25:Dec 90.

 

Sumatra [see also Aceh] Medan gets a new mayor - A tale of two cities: part 1/ Loren Ryter 63:Jul 00. A peaceful road to freedom - Riau wants freedom and more money/ Freek Colombijn 60:Oct 99. Sumatra by bus/ Jim Della-Giacoma 60:Oct 99. Flesh trade of Sumatra - Trafficking in young girls/ Ahmad Sofian 59:Jul 99. A river runs through it - Journey to a Sumatran village/ Jim Della-Giacoma 57:Jan 99. Letter from Medan/ John McCarthy 55:Jul 98. A veneer of tradition (Minangkabau)/ Arianne van der Meer 49:Jan 97. Colonial legacy - Javanese labour in a Sumatran plantation/ Budi Agustono 49:Jan 97. Two Sumatran films - 'Tiger from Tjampa' & 'Pioneers of Freedom'/ David Hanan 49:Jan 97. The prison diary of Muchtar Pakpahan/ Muchtar Pakpahan 49:Jan 97. Battle for the pews - Conflict within the Batak Protestant church/ Gerry van Klinken 49:Jan 97. Of money and trees - 19th century growth triangle/ Freek Colombijn 49:Jan 97. Traditional medicine in West Sumatra/ Geoff Shadrack 39:Jun 94. Move or be damned - The social impact of the Kotopanjang dam/ Colin Pemul 37:Dec 93. West Papua/ Irian Jaya Why West Papua deserves another chance - The 1969 UN ballot broke all the rules/ Sam Blay 61:Jan 00. West Papua in 1999/ Nina FitzSimons 61:Jan 00. Whisky friends - PNG military and TNI get together/ Andrew Kilvert 60:Oct 99. Indonesia on the net/ Ed Aspinall and Iain Wilson 60:Oct 99. Raising the West Papua flag - Eyewitness account of demonstrations/ Andrew Kilvert 56:Oct 98. Mamberamo madness - Habibie's techno dream for Irian Jaya/ Frances Carr 55:Jul 98. Soldiers murder in Irian Jaya - The secret aftermath of the 1996 hostage crisis/ Gerry van Klinken 55:Jul 98. Carolyn Cook, The Amung way/ Matt Richards 51:Jul 97. Freeport update/ Nic Maclellan 49:Jan 97. We've lived here 1000s of years/ John Rumbiak (interview) 47:Jul 96. They don't consider us real humans/ Pieter Yan Magal (interview) 47:Jul 96. John Djopari, Pemberontakan Organisasi Papua Merdeka/ Gerry van Klinken 47:Jul 96. Maj-Gen Samsuddin, Pergolakan di perbatasan - Operasi pembebasan sandera tanpa pertumpahan darah/ Gerry van Klinken 47:Jul 96. Irian Jaya military human rights manual/ Abri 46:Mar 96. Military abuses near Freeport/ 45:Dec 95. Freeport's Australian links/ 45:Dec 95. Freeport loses its insurance - OPIC/ 45:Dec 95. The Amungme tribe's relation to the land/ Angel Menembu 45:Dec 95. Soldiering in Irian Jaya/ Krisna 45:Dec 95. West Papuans use music to comment/ Soebiakti 45:Dec 95. Health care in Irian Jaya/ Kate Napthali 41:Dec 94. Irian Jaya - Tribes and tourists/ Mark James 37:Dec 93. The OPM's new order - Interview with new generation guerilla leader/ James Matthews 31:Jun 92. The last stand of the Moi people - Local people in Sorong resist logging/ 31:Jun 92. Irian Jaya - Nationalism resurgent - Summary of Amnesty report/ Gerry van Klinken 30:Mar 92. Logging the Asmat's land - A personal encounter/ Kirsty Sword 27:Jun 91. The polluted Ajikwa river - Freeport mine is getting off lightly/ 25:Dec 90. Plucking profits from Irian Jaya - Flogging Irian's birds of paradise/ 24:Oct 90. Images of resistance in West Papua/ S. T. Moir 23:Jun 90. George Monbiot, Poisoned arrows/ Robin Osborne 22:Mar 90. Carmel Budiardjo & Liem Soei Liong, West Papua - The obliteration of a People/ Robin Osborne 18:Apr 89. E P Wolfers (ed), Beyond the border (Indon-PNG etc)/ Brian Brunton 18:Apr 89. Astra-Scott project in Irian Jaya/ SKEPHI 18:Apr 89. A new threat to Irian Jaya forests/ George Aditjondro 16:Oct 88. Letter from Lake Sentani/ Saila Indri 15:Aug 88. International Commission of Jurists, Refuji - Report of the 1986 mission to PNG/ Christine Wheeler 12:Oct 87. Putting Irian Jaya on the market/ Bas Suebu (Interview) 12:Oct 87. Peace through paper? (Indonesia-PNG Treaty)/ Beverley Blaskett 11:Aug 87. Tapeworm trafficking/ David C. Hyndman 11:Aug 87. The people are behind us/ Robin Osborne 9:Dec 86. Kahpi Suriadiredja, Tantangan dan perjuangan di Bumi Cenderawasi/ Ron Hatley 8:Oct 86. The Irian Jaya Rural Community Development Foundation/ 7:May 86. Stephen Harris & Colin Brown, Indonesia, PNG and Australia - The Irian Jaya problem of 1984/ Brian Brunton 5:Jul 85. Better to die fighting/ Robin Osborne 5:Jul 85. West Papuan refugees in PNG - One year later/ Bob Burns 5:Jul 85. West Papua or Melanesia?/ Rex Rumakiek (Interview) 4:Mar 85. The flag that won't go away (OPM)/ Robin Osborne 4:Mar 85. Robert Mitton, The lost world of Irian Jaya/ Robin Osborne 2:May 84. Carmel Budiardjo & Liem Soei Liong, West Papua - The obliteration of a people/ Robin Osborne 2:May 84.

Antithesis of justice

While top officials hail the Australia-Indonesia security agreement, ARTHUR KING is appalled to find that, on the ground in East Timor, youths who resist still face torture.

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Rivals congratulate Nobel winner

In August 1975 a brief but bitter civil war in East Timor pitted Fretilin against the UDT. It was the prelude to Indonesian annexation. Since then, rivalry has hampered East Timorese cooperation, and been exploited by Indonesian government spokespersons. In this generous statement the UDT speaks openly about the past, and embraces Nobel Peace Prize winner Jose Ramos- Horta.

The Supreme Political council of the Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) welcomes the announcement by the Nobel Peace Committee that the 1966 winners of the Nobel Peace Prize are two East Timorese, Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo and Mr Jose Ramos-Horta. We extend to our two compatriots our most heartfelt congratulations. Within minutes of the announcement of the award, UDT leaders and militants sent numerous messages to the two winners. Now, the UDT leadership wishes to issue a more detailed account of UDT views about the role of Mr Ramos-Horta in more than two decades of dedicated and tireless efforts towards our common cause.

The Indonesian government and media have engaged in a grotesque slander campaign against Mr Jose Ramos-Horta, as they did against Bishop Carlos Ximenes Belo in the fall of 1995, on the eve of the Nobel Peace Committee's announcement of the 1995 winners. Most international observers were predicting in 1995 that Bishop Belo was going to be the winner that year. There were even orchestrated street demonstrations in Indonesia and petitions denouncing Bishop Belo. Now it is Mr Ramos-Horta who is being denounced and called all sorts of names.

Adversary

Mr Ramos-Horta is a political adversary of the UDT, but in more than 21 years he always displayed flexibility, tolerance and readiness to cooperate with his adversaries. It was through Mr Ramos-Horta's tireless efforts that in January 1975 the UDT and Fretilin signed a coalition.

When violence erupted in East Timor in August 1975, Mr Ramos- Horta was out of the country. But he sent personal messages to the UDT leaders as he did to his Fretilin colleagues urging us to stop the fighting. Mr Ramos-Horta also offered to mediate between the two parties.

When he was able to return to East Timor in mid-September 1975, when the conflict ended with Fretilin gaining military supremacy over the UDT, he visited all prisoners, cooperated with the International Red Cross, and raised his voice when prisoners were mistreated by their captors. He secured the release of many UDT prisoners and managed to organise the evacuation of some stranded children to Australia to reunite with their families.

Within hours of his arrival in Dili, he secured the release of Portuguese army soldiers who had been detained by Fretilin. They were handed over to the ICRC who repatriated them to Portugal in September 1975.

Tolerance

There is not one single East Timorese who can claim that Mr Ramos-Horta was engaged in violence, directly or indirectly. Quite the contrary, he was among the very vocal few who tried to control the excesses and always displayed enormous tolerance and humanity. He visited the prisoners and had tears in his eyes when he heard of their mistreatment, and did not hesitate to express his revulsion at meetings of the Fretilin Central Committee. This caused him numerous serious problems with the extremists, and more than once he was threatened with arrest and expulsion from Fretilin.

When Fretilin gained the upper hand in September-November 1975 he visited UDT imprisoned leaders and discussed with them ideas about how they could reorganise themselves. Some UDT leaders who crossed over to West Timor at the end of August 1975 were immediately held hostage in Indonesia and were coerced to support Jakarta policies.

Social democrat

In an extraordinary display of political wisdom, Mr Ramos-Horta met with those UDT leaders who stayed behind in East Timor and were detained by Fretilin, and proposed that they reorganise the party in East Timor. Our colleagues agreed with his wise proposal but the Fretilin hardliners blocked it.

Mr Ramos-Horta was a social democrat from the very beginning and never changed his stand ever since. He was never part of the Marxist faction of Fretilin and was always viewed with suspicion by the extremists.

In 1978 he argued for reconciliation between UDT and Fretilin. He was attacked by the then Fretilin leader abroad, Mr Abilio Araujo, a Marxist-Leninist ideologue, and was labelled a 'traitor'. Mr Abilio Araujo is now a wealthy businessman in Lisbon, but only a few years ago he was a dogmatic communist who branded any one like Ramos-Horta a 'traitor' and a 'capitalist roader'. Mr Ramos-Horta was even physically threatened with death by the extremists.Alliance

When he visited Australia in June-July 1984, he discussed with us again the idea of an alliance between Fretilin and UDT, and in 1986 the two parties signed the Nationalist Convergence.

For more than 21 years he has argued for dialogue with Indonesia. For this he was also accused as a sell-out by the same extremists who are today in Jakarta's payroll.

Even though we in UDT at times had our differences with him, he never hesitated to help us. On several occasions, he helped UDT or individual members of UDT out of his own pocket. In critical periods of our struggle requiring immediate diplomatic activities, he supported some of the travels, accommodation and in many occasions organised for us to stay with his friends. His sense of humour always helped us in our hours of despair. His determination and passion, professionalism in carrying out his duties, but also his love for life, has always inspired us. We often joke that he is a non-card carrying UDT member rather than a leader of Fretilin.

In the face of the slanderous attacks on Mr Ramos-Horta, the UDT feels it is its obligation to put the record straight, because not doing so would be morally unfair. The UDT is proud that two East Timorese won the 1996 Nobel Peace Prize Award, and look forward to continue a 21 year old association with our political adversary Mr Ramos-Horta in our common goal of pursuing freedom for our country, through a just and peaceful solution.

Signed: Joao Carrascalao, President of UDT; Domingos de Oliveira, General Secretary; Sydney, 24 October 1996. The Timorese Democratic Union (UDT) Supreme Political Council can be contacted at PO Box 3233, Liverpool NSW 2170, Australia.

Inside Indonesia 49: Jan-Mar 1997

To struggle for freedom: Indonesia yesterday, East Timor today

PETER CAREY finds many parallels between the conduct of the present-day Indonesian regime in East Timor and that of the Netherlands' colonial administration in the Indies before World War II. Not least, both governments took for granted their right to rule.

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The East Timor peace process

Heike Krieger, East Timor and the international community: Basic documents, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 494+xxviii pp, hardcover, Rrp AU$160.Geoffrey C. Gunn, East Timor and the United Nations: The case for intervention, Lawrenceville, N.J: Red Sea Press, 1997, 241+vi pp, paperback, Rrp US$19.95. Avail: Red Sea Press, 11-D Princess Road, Lawrenceville, N.J., USA 08648-2319; fax: 1-609-844-0198.

Reviewed by RICHARD TANTER

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Indonesian spying on East Timorese exiles

PETER CRONAU and MATTHEW BROWN find that Cold War methods live on in Indonesian consulates around Australia.

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Travels in West Timor

SIMON ANDREWARTHA discovers a quiet invasion by outsiders, even in the remotest villages.

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